Please join us for Maria Panichelli and Amy Kirby‘s seminar, “Avoiding Common Pitfalls in Small Business Government Contracting,” for the District of Columbia Procurement Technical Assistance Center (DC PTAC) on November 5th in Washington, D.C. Continue Reading Avoiding Common Pitfalls in Small Business Government Contracting
Join Ed DeLisle and Maria Panichelli for their presentation for TargetGov and the Government Contracting Institute on November 2, 2015 in Linthicum Heights, MD. Continue Reading Bid Protests, and Size/Status Eligibility Challenges: In-Depth Look at the Most Important Processes in Government Contracting
Please join us for Maria Panichelli‘s webinar for Govology on October 29, 2015 at 1:00PM EST.
In today’s extremely competitive federal contracting market, understanding bid protests and the procedures relating to protests can make the difference between getting the contract, or getting left out of the race altogether. Continue Reading Debriefing, Bid Protests, and Size & Status Investigations
Thank you for joining us for Ed DeLisle and Maria Panichelli‘s webinar on October 06, 2015 for TargetGov/ the Government Contracting Institute. Continue Reading A Primer on Debriefings and Protests
In a bid protest argued by our firm before the United States Court of Federal Claims on September 23, 2014, the Court ruled in favor of our client, RLB Contracting, Inc., (RLB) in a matter involving the designation of the dredging exception to NAICS code 237990, which is for “Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction.” 13 C.F.R. § 121.201 (2014). The solicitation for the “South Lake Lery Shoreline Protection and Marsh Creation Project” was set aside for small business concerns by the Natural Resource Conservation Service, but the exception to NAICS code 237990 that applies when a project is considered to be dredging was not invoked. At the time, the exception lowered the small business size standard from $33.5 million to $25.5 million for dredging and required that the successful contractor “must perform at least 40 percent of the volume dredged with its own equipment or equipment owned by another small dredging concern.” 13 C.F.R. § 121.201, Footnote 2. (Currently, the applicable small business size standards are $36.5 million and $27.5 million respectively).
The small business regulation found at 13 C.F.R. 121.402(b)(2) states that “[a] procurement is usually classified according to the component which accounts for the greatest percentage of contract value.” In this case, RLB presented evidence that the agency had internally estimated that over 50% of the work involved dredging and that the agency had made its NAICS code designation based on an erroneous calculation that only 10% of the work involved dredging. RLB first appealed the NAICS code designation to SBA’s Office of Hearings and Appeals (“OHA”), arguing that the agency applied the incorrect NAICS code size standard. OHA denied the appeal on the basis that the project included other items of work in addition to dredging. However, OHA did no analysis as to the contract value or relative importance of those “other items.” RLB then brought its protest to the United States Court of Federal Claims, again arguing that the agency violated the regulations by failing to apply the dredging exception. RLB also argued that the agency had failed to provide correct information to OHA, and that OHA had refused to consider supplemental information furnished by counsel for RLB. The Court ruled that OHA’s decision was incorrect as a matter of law because OHA’s “decision does not give primary consideration” to “the relative value and importance of the components of the procurement” and did not concern itself with whether the agency classified the procurement “according to the component [of work] which accounts for the greatest percentage of contract value.” 13 C.F.R. § 121.402(b)(1)-(b)(2) (2014).
The Court was critical of the agency for not including pertinent documents in the Administrative Record which demonstrated that the agency knew that the dredging work accounted for the greatest percentage of contract value, and was further critical of OHA for concluding that other, relatively minor, elements of the work supported the agency’s contention that the project did not predominantly involve dredging. As a result, the Court entered a permanent injunction and remanded the matter to the Contracting Officer with instructions “to make a new determination of whether the dredging exception applies based on all available current information.” The Court further stated that “If item 7, Excavation Marsh Creation Dredging, is the most valuable item of work, the contracting officer must give primary consideration to it.”
This decision is an important victory for the small business dredging industry because it makes it clear that federal agencies are not free to circumvent the protection afforded to small business dredging contractors, under the exception to NAICS code 237990, by characterizing work generally as civil construction even though the dominant item of work is dredging. The exception is designed to prevent brokering by non-dredging small business concerns who, after receiving an award, could subcontract virtually all of the dredging work to a large business dredging concern.
Michael H. Payne is the Chairman of the firm’s Federal Practice Group and, together with other experienced members of the group, frequently advises contractors on federal contracting matters including bid protests, claims and appeals, procurement issues, small business issues, and dispute resolution.
Robert Ruggieri is a Senior Associate in the firm’s Federal Practice Group.
By: Joseph A. Hackenbracht
From August 2, 2002 until July 14, 2004, Todd Construction, a general contractor located in Oklahoma, was awarded five indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity (ID/IQ) contracts by the Savannah District of the Corps of Engineers for design and construction of projects in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Each contract was for a period of up to three years and together the task orders issued under the contracts could have added up to $65,000,000. On two of the task orders, each of which was for less than $500,000, Todd received unsatisfactory performance evaluations; it challenged those ratings.
Back in 2008, we reported (see our earlier blog article) about a decision by the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, Todd Construction, L.P. v. U.S., 85 Fed.Cl. 34, 2008, where the Court held that it had jurisdiction to hear a challenge to a performance rating. In that case, Todd submitted a CDA claim asserting that it received an erroneous performance evaluation. The Court concluded that the challenge constituted a “claim” within the meaning of the Contract Disputes Act, thereby giving the Court jurisdiction of what amounted to a non-monetary dispute.
In the years that followed, Todd proceeded on a legal odyssey in what came to be known as Todd I, Todd II, and Todd III. Todd’s counsel battled with government attorneys in written brief and after written brief over nuances regarding one’s ability to challenge a performance evaluation. In 2009, the Court issued Todd II, finding that plaintiff’s must “do more than recite the elements of a cause of action; they must make sufficient factual allegations to ‘raise a right to relief above the speculative level.’” Todd v. U.S., 88 Fed.Cl. 235 (2009). The Court then granted Todd the opportunity to amend its pleadings. In Todd III, decided in 2010, the Court of Federal Claims concluded that, even after revising its complaint, Todd failed to state a claim upon which relief could be granted, and dismissed Todd’s challenge of its rating. The Court also found that Todd lacked standing to bring the action because there was no discernable injury from the alleged errors in the evaluation. Todd v. U.S., 94 Fed.Cl. 100 (2010).
Once Todd’s journey in the Court of Federal Claims came to an end, Todd had two choices: abandon pursuit of its claim or appeal the decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Todd chose to appeal. On August 29, 2011, the Circuit Court issued its decision. The Circuit Court agreed with the lower court’s finding that, in the absence of a showing of prejudice or injury in fact, Todd lacked standing to challenge the alleged procedural violations in the agency’s evaluation. Furthermore, the Court of Appeals agreed with the lower court’s dismissal of the case for failure to state a claim. Todd Const. L.P. v. U.S., 656 F.3d 1306, C.A.Fed. 2011. The Court noted that the complaint did not “state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face,” and that Todd failed to “plead factual content that allows a court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged.” The Court of Appeals did confirm the jurisdiction of the Court of Federal Claims to hear challenges of performance ratings since, it concluded, the ratings are “related to” the contract and the challenge is a claim under the Contract Disputes Act.
So, on a contract that was performed between 2003 and 2005, concerning a performance evaluation issued on July 23, 2006, that was challenged in a claim submitted in August, 2006, which was denied in a Contracting Officer’s decision dated April 25, 2007, that was the subject matter of the Complaint filed on May 25, 2007, Todd learned on August 29, 2011, that the merits of the government’s evaluation of its performance would go unchallenged and unreviewed. Although Todd could appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States, there is no indication that Todd pursued the matter any further.
Decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit are precedent for both the Court of Federal Claims and the boards of contract appeals. Going forward, therefore, contractors can expect that both the boards and the Court will hear challenges of adverse performance ratings. However, in order to avoid the negative result suffered by Todd, contractors must plead the facts specifically and in detail, and identify individually which ratings are arbitrary and capricious and why they are erroneous. Contractors must also allege what the ratings should have been and that the outcome would have been different if the errors had not been made. In order to avoid dismissal based on standing, contractors must be ready to provide evidence that the negative rating has caused injury, or has prejudiced the contractor.
Based upon the above, contractors should consult with a professional to the extent that they wish to challenge a performance rating to assure themselves that the prerequisites of Todd I, II and III have been met.
Joseph A. Hackenbracht is a Partner in the firm and a member of the Federal Contracting Practice Group.
By: Edward T. DeLisle & Maria L. Panichelli
SDVOSB Appeal of Rush-Link One Joint Venture, SBA No. VET-228 (2012), a recent Small Business Administration Office of Hearings and Appeals (“OHA”) decision that we discussed previously, demonstrates how a company’s internal corporate structure can impact that company’s eligibility to participate in the Service-Disabled Veteran Owned (“SDVO”) small business program.
SDVOSB Appeal of Rush-Link One concerned a joint-venture, Rush-Link One, which was 51%-owned by Link Contracting, Inc. (Link), a purported SDVO small business concern. Mr. George Carpenter, a service-disabled veteran, owned 55% of Link. Following the award of a SDVOSB set-aside contract to Rush-Link One, a competitor challenged the joint-venture’s eligibility for the SDVO program.
Pursuant to 13 C.F.R. § 125.10(a), a small business concern may qualify as an eligible SDVO only if the management and daily business operations of that concern are “controlled” by one or more service-disabled veterans. The regulations define “control” differently, depending upon the type of corporate structure employed. In the case of a partnership, one or more service-disabled veterans must serve as general partners, with control over all partnership decisions. 13 C.F.R. § 125.10(c). A limited liability company (LLC) is “controlled” by a service-disabled veteran only if one or more service-disabled veterans serve as managing members, with control over all decisions of the LLC. 13 C.F.R. § 125.10(d). In the case of a corporation, such as Link, the service-disabled veteran must prove that he or she has “control” over the corporation’s Board of Directors, thereby allowing him or her to make all major decisions on the company’s behalf. 13 C.F.R. § 125.10(e). Service-disabled veterans control the Board of Directors when either: (1) one or more service-disabled veterans own at least 51% of all voting stock of the concern, are on the Board of Directors and have the percentage of voting stock necessary to overcome any super majority voting requirements; or (2) service-disabled veterans comprise the majority of voting directors through actual numbers or, where permitted by state law, through weighted voting. 13 C.F.R. § 125.10(e).
Applying the above in Rush-Link One, the OHA concluded that the supermajority requirements in Link’s shareholders’ agreement abrogated the service-disabled veteran owner’s “control” of the corporation under 13 C.F.R. § 125.10, and rendered the concern and, therefore, the joint-venture, ineligible for participation in the SDVOSB program. The OHA found that, although Link was 55% owned by a service-disabled veteran, its shareholders executed a formal shareholders’ agreement which stated that “[e]xcept as otherwise provided herein or in [Link’s] bylaws, all decisions of the Shareholders shall be made by a majority vote. “Majority vote” was defined as one in which “seventy percent (70%) of the issued shares of the Corporation vote to pass the issue or matter.” The same paragraph of the shareholders’ agreement indicated that “[t]his provision shall supersede any contrary provision of [Link’s] bylaws or Articles of Incorporation (as they stand now or may subsequently be amended).” Accordingly, the OHA found that Mr. Carpenter’s 55% ownership of Link was insufficient to overcome the supermajority requirement set forth in the shareholders’ agreement, and, consequently, that he did not “control” Link’s board of directors or Link as a whole. Therefore, OHA concluded that Link was not a SDVOSB, and that Rush-Link one was not an eligible SDVOSB joint-venture.
Let this case serve as a reminder that internal corporate governance is critically important to SDVOSB eligibility. In our practice, it represents the single, most frequently cited basis for the loss or denial of SDVOSB status.
By: Joseph A. Hackenbracht
For many years, the boards of contract appeals have considered challenges to performance evaluations and declined, for various reasons, to hear those cases. Then, in 2008, the U.S. Court of Federal Claims held that it possessed jurisdiction to address a contractor’s challenge of the performance rating it had been given by the Corps of Engineers. Todd Construction Company, Inc. v. U.S., 85 Fed.Cl. 34, 2008. (see our earlier blog article) Todd had submitted a “claim” pursuant to the Contract Disputes Act (CDA) challenging its performance rating and the Court concluded that submission of the claim satisfied its “jurisdictional prerequisite.”
In 2010, after the Todd decision was issued by the Court of Federal Claims, the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals decided that it also could address challenges to performance ratings based on the board’s jurisdiction to determine the rights and obligations of parties under the terms and conditions of their contract. Appeal of Versar, Inc., ASBCA No. 56857, 10-1 BCA ¶ 34437, May 6, 2010. Also in 2010, in a case where the contractor submitted a CDA claim challenging the performance rating, the Board held that under the CDA, it has jurisdiction to “decide any appeal” involving a claim “relating to a contract.” Appeal of Colonna’s Shipyard, Inc., ASBCA No. 56940, 10-2 BCA ¶ 34494, June 24, 2010.
Last month, the Board issued a follow-up decision in Versar addressing the merits of claimant’s position that its performance rating was issued in error. The Board found that Versar had failed to show that its performance rating was arbitrary and capricious, the requisite standard, and, therefore, denied Versar’s claim. In so doing, the Board stated that “bare or insufficient allegations cannot sustain a claim that the government issued an unjustified performance rating.”Appeals of Versar, Inc., ASBCA Nos. 56857 et al., 2012 WL 1579539, April 23, 2012. In its discussion, the Board referenced a decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, Todd Const. L.P. v. U.S., 656 F.3d 1306, C.A. Fed. 2011, where the Circuit Court affirmed the decision of the Court of Federal Claims to dismiss a challenge to a performance rating on the basis that the contractor failed to state a claim upon which relief could be granted. In its decision, the Circuit Court affirmed the lower court’s determination that it had jurisdiction to hear cases involving challenges of performance ratings issued by the government.
Decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit are precedent for both the Court of Federal Claims and the boards of contract appeals. Going forward, therefore, contractors can expect that both the boards and the Court of Federal Claims will address challenges of performance ratings in accordance with the Circuit Court’s decision in Todd Const. L.P. v. United States. Contractors can be encouraged that it is now settled that both the boards and the court have jurisdiction to hear challenges of adverse performance ratings.
Upon receipt of an unacceptable performance rating, a contractor should submit a claim under the Contract Disputes Act challenging the rating as arbitrary and capricious. The contractor needs to raise specific objections to individual ratings and demonstrate the errors in the government’s evaluation. After receiving a decision, or in the event a decision is not issued, the contractor should file an action in either the appropriate board of contract appeals or the Court of Federal Claims.
Contractors must be prepared to plead the facts specifically and in detail, and identify individually, which ratings are arbitrary and capricious and why they are erroneous. Contractors also need to be sure to allege what the ratings should have been and that the outcome would have been different if the errors had not been made. In order to avoid dismissal based on standing, it may also be necessary to establish that the negative rating has caused injury, and has prejudiced the contractor. One way to demonstrate the prejudice and injury may be to present facts that the negative rating resulted in the contractor not receiving a contract.
As the ASBCA noted in Versar, the contractor did not provide the board with “specifics of the rating, ratings process, categories, and details,” as well as evidence of what the rating should have been. If contractors want the court to step into the fray, they must furnish the court with the specifics to establish that the government’s evaluations are erroneous and the subsequent ratings are arbitrary and capricious. Unsupported allegations and conclusory statements will not win the day.
Joseph A. Hackenbracht is a Partner in the firm and a member of the Federal Contracting Practice Group.
By: Edward T. DeLisle & Maria L. Panichelli
In a recent opinion, SDVOSB Appeal of Rush-Link One Joint Venture, SBA No. VET-228 (2012), the United States Small Business Administration (“SBA”) Office of Hearings and Appeals (“OHA”) used two 8(a) program regulations, namely 13 C.F.R. § 124.106(g) and 13 C.F.R. § 124.3, to determine whether a joint-venture met the eligibility requirements for the Service-Disabled Veteran Owned (SDVO) Small Business Program. Specifically, the OHA found that the joint-venture was not eligible for participation in the program; certain loans from minority owners imposed impermissible restrictions on the service-disabled veteran/majority-owner’s ownership.
Rush-Link One Joint-Venture (“Rush-Link”) was a joint-venture between Link Contracting, Inc. (Link), which held a 51% interest in the joint-venture, and Rush Construction, Inc. (Rush). Following the award of a SDVO set-aside contract to Rush-Link, a competitor challenged the joint-venture’s eligibility for the SDVO program.
For a small business concern to qualify as an eligible SDVO, a service-disabled veteran must directly and unconditionally “own” at least 51% of the firm. 13 C.F.R. § 125.9. The service-disabled veteran also must “control” both the long-term decision-making and the day-today management of the firm. 13 C.F.R. § 125.10(a). For a joint-venture to be SDVO-eligible, the joint-venture agreement must contain a provision designating an SDVO participant as the managing venturer, and designating an employee of the managing venturer as the project manager. 13 C.F.R. § 125.15(b)(2)(ii).
Applying these provisions to Rush-Link, the SBA Director for Government Contracting (“DGC”) concluded that Mr. George A. Carpenter, the president and 55%-owner of Link, was a service-disabled veteran. However, he found that Carpenter did not “own” Link within the meaning of the SDVO Program regulations, based on the existence of several promissory notes that divested Carpenter of certain ownership rights. More specifically, the terms of these promissory notes – given to three minority-owners of Link in exchange for critical loans provided to the company – restricted Carpenter’s ability to transfer his interest or receive dividends or distributions. Therefore, in reliance upon 13 C.F.R. § 124.106(g), which states that a person “controls” a company if he or she “provides critical financing” to the company or exercises control “through loan arrangements,” the DGC concluded that Carpenter’s ownership was impermissibly restricted by the promissory notes. The DGC reached this conclusion, even though 13 C.F.R. § 124.106(g) is an 8(a) regulation intended to govern small-disadvantaged businesses, and is not part of the regulations governing the SDVO program.
On appeal, Link cited 13 C.F.R. § 124.3, another 8(a) regulation, for the proposition that “ordinary” loans following “normal commercial practices” should not be the basis for finding that a small business owner does not control his or her company. The OHA acknowledged this was correct, but concluded that the loans in question here were “commercially irregular” because the holders of the promissory notes were not banks or other commercial lenders, but minority owners of the company itself. Based on this conclusion, the OHA determined that the promissory notes impermissibly restricted Carpenter’s ownership, and that Link was therefore not an eligible SDVO business. The necessary result of such a finding was that the joint-venture between Link and Rush (which is not itself a SDVO business) was also ineligible for the SDVO program pursuant to 13 C.F.R. § 125.15(b)(2)(ii).
Oddly, neither the DGC nor the OHA addressed the propriety of using 8(a) regulations to determine eligibility under the SDVO program. Therefore, going forward, participants in all the various SBA small business set-aside programs should be aware, not only that loans that result in restrictions on ownership rights might invalidate “ownership” for the purposes of eligibility, but also that regulations may be utilized and interpreted across programs to determine a business’ eligibility.
In addition to the above, SDVOSB Appeal of Rush-Link One Joint Venture, SBA No. VET-228 (2012) provided some interesting insights concerning how a company’s internal corporate structure might affect the “control” requirements relating to SDVO eligibility under 13 C.F.R. § 125.10(a). Stay tuned for an update on what an SDVO should and should not include in its corporate governance documents.
By: Edward T. DeLisle
Over the last several years, the scrutiny over federal small business programs has grown. That scrutiny has led to changes in policy and legislation designed to curb potential fraud in the procurement process. Because these changes have been implemented in such a short period of time, however, it is not unusual for the government to issue solicitations for small business set-aside contracts that are confusing, or even contradictory. In Commandeer Construction Company, Inc., B-405771, December 29, 2011, that is precisely what occurred resulting in a successful protest.
Commandeer Construction involved a solicitation that was set aside for Service-Disabled, Veteran-Owned Small Businesses (SDVOSBs), a program that has experienced much change in recent years. In 2006, the VA was given the authority to restrict competition to SDVOSBs as part of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Act (the "Act"). 38 U.S.C. 8127(d). As the GAO explained in Commandeer Construction, pursuant to the Act, an SDVOSB set-aside contract may only be issued to entities listed in a database of veteran-owned small businesses maintained by the VA. The VA has chosen to use what it has termed its "Vendor Information Pages" ("VIP"), which can be found at www.vetbiz.gov, as its official listing of veteran-owned and service-disabled, veteran-owned concerns.
Subsequent to issuance of the Act, the VA issued VAAR 804.1102, which states that all VOSB and SDVOSB entities must be listed in its VIP database by January 1, 2012 in order to be eligible for set-aside contracts for such entities. By December 31, 2011, all VOSB and SDVOSB entities must not only be listed, but must also be "verified," in order to receive new contract awards under the Veteran’s First program, a program operated exclusively by the VA. While firms were once permitted to self-certify their status as VOSBs and SDVOSBs, as part of Veterans Benefits Act of 2010, the VA instituted a more rigorous qualification process. Consistent with this new review procedure, which was designed to weed out fraud, the VA’s "Center for Veterans Enterprise" ("CVE") was given the authority to render eligibility determinations for these programs. If a firm wished to obtain a set-aside contract as a VOSB or a SDVOSB entity, it would have to be verified by CVE.
In an effort to assist in the transition from a self-certifying system to one requiring government approval, the VA issued what it called its "Memorandum from VA Acting Associate Deputy Assistant Secretary for Procurement Policy, Systems Oversight and Accompanying Class Deviation from VA Acquisition Regulation" (the "Memorandum"). The Memorandum referenced what the VA described as a "class deviation." Based upon this class deviation, any "apparently successful offeror" that had not already been verified by CVE, could become verified on an expedited basis, and obtain an award of a VOSB or SDVOSB set-aside contract, provided CVE approved its status. Later, the VA clarified its position regarding who may qualify for a “class deviation,” taking the position that a company was not eligible for “either award or Fast Track Verification," unless it was visible in the VA’s VIP database. Commandeer Construction addressed the interplay between the class deviation identified in the Memorandum and the VA’s attempt to subsequently clarify what it meant.
In Commandeer Construction, the VA issued an IFB for a construction contract that was set aside for eligible SDVOSB firms. The solicitation stated that the award would be made to an SDVOSB firm that had “been verified for ownership and control and [was] so listed in the [VIP] database.” The IFB also included the “class deviation” language referenced above. What was not included as part of the IFB, however, was the Memorandum (and accompanying deviation), or the clarification made to the deviation, which was issued after the fact.
On August 8, 2011, the protesting party, Commandeer Construction, submitted an application to the CVE for approval as an SDVOSB. Thereafter, on August 30, 2011, Commandeer submitted its bid. As its bid was the lowest of those submitted, Commandeer was in line for an award. As it was not listed in the VIP database, however, the contract specialist for the VA intended to contact Commandeer for purposes of explaining the process of obtaining expedited verification.
Prior to contacting Commandeer, the VA contract specialist apparently learned of the clarification for the first time and discussed its meaning and significance with other VA officials. Based upon these discussions, the VA contract specialist decided that Commandeer was ineligible for award and informed it of such by letter dated August 31, 2011. At the time, CVE had not rendered a final decision on Commandeer’s SDVOSB eligibility.
Commandeer protested VA’s decision, taking the position that rejecting its bid was improper based upon the expedited review procedures outlined in the solicitation. The VA countered that the deviation clause, upon which Commandeer relied for potential eligibility, was never meant to apply to entities that were absent from the VIP database. According to the VA, the deviation clause was merely an effort to provide assistance to those firms that had already self-certified, but had not yet been CVE verified under the new review procedures. Commandeer Construction at 4.
The GAO based its decision on a strict reading of the solicitation. The deviation clause in the solicitation specifically stated that “the apparent successful offeror” would be given an opportunity to have its SDVOSB status reviewed on an expedited basis, if it was not “currently listed as verified” in the VIP database. While the VA may not have intended for the deviation to apply to firms not already listed in its VIP database, the GAO concluded that the solicitation itself did not provide that qualification. As such, Commandeer’s understanding that it could qualify for award pursuant to the expedited review procedure was reasonable. Based upon this finding, the GAO recommended that the VA complete its review of Commandeer’s verification documents and, if found to be eligible for SDVOSB status, award it the contract.
As the government continues to alter its approach in exercising control over small business programs, mistakes, such as those in Commandeer Contracting, will happen. Contractors must exercise care in reviewing and responding to any solicitation. If, during the course of the review process, an ambiguity is discovered, bring it to the attention of the contract specialist, contracting officer, or source selection authority immediately. Doing so will benefit all bidders and quite possibly prevent a pre-bid protest. For those ambiguities that are not readily detectible, and are only revealed at the time of contract award, be prepared to discuss your concerns with an attorney familiar with such issues right away, as a protest is likely your only source of recourse. For those participating in the government’s various small business programs, the fast-paced nature of regulatory change has opened these programs up to issues such as those presented in Commandeer Contracting. Bid and beware.
Edward T. DeLisle is a Partner in the firm and a member of the Federal Contracting Practice Group.